Electric vehicles are not new to the world, but technological advancements and a growing focus on pollution control have branded them the mobility of the future. Various types of electric motors are used in electric vehicles, including brushless DC motors, permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM), and three-phase AC induction motors. Among these motors, you may have heard of BLDC motors which are very popular in electric vehicles.
What is a brushless dc motor?
A brushless DC motor (BLDC) is a motor without brushes and commutators, also known as a commutatorless motor or a synchronous DC motor. The input terminal of BLDC is direct current, but in essence, the effect of alternating current 9 is realized by cyclically switching the main switch of the inverter, so that the coil winding produces a brushless direct current motor (BLDC), that is, a motor without brushes and commutators, also known as Commutatorless motors or synchronous DC motors. The input terminal of BLDC is direct current, but in essence, the effect of alternating current 9 is realized by cyclically switching the main switch of the inverter, which makes the coil winding generate a changing magnetic field, and makes the motor rotor continue to rotate under the action of continuous torque.
Advantages of using brushless dc motor in electric vehicles
Before the latest EVs, cars already used BLDC motors for windshield wipers, CD players and power windows. Automakers today use three different types of motors in green cars: BLDC motors, brushed DC motors, and AC induction motors.
BLDC electric car motors have a permanent magnet rotor surrounded by a wound stator. The windings in the stator are electronically commutated instead of using brushes. This allows the BLDC motor to:
- The maintenance of the bldc motor is simpler.
- A brushless motor is more durable and has smaller size.
- 85%–90% increase in efficiency.
- BLDC motor is able to respond faster at higher operating speeds.
- It is easier to control in terms of speed control and reverse.
Why use bldc motor in electric vehicles?
Most electric scooters and electric motorcycles use brushless DC motors.
- BLDC motors have a higher torque-to-weight ratio, which is important for EVs because it allows us to make vehicles lighter while still getting enough torque.
- Since BLDC motors do not have brushes, they are more reliable because there is less equipment to deal with. Therefore, it is also easy to maintain.
- Compared to brushed DC motors, BLDC motors are considered to be more energy efficient. The lack of friction in the brushes allows BLDC motors to convert more electrical energy into mechanical energy, which is why they are more efficient than brushed motors.
- Since the brushes have no friction, the BLDC can operate without any mechanical noise. As a result, electric vehicles can move more quietly.
- Unlike traditional DC motors that operate with brushes, BLDC motors do not spark. This is an interesting feature of brushless motors, as it allows them to be used in spark-hazardous environments. For example, in environments with flammable gases.
- The composition of the BLDC motor also keeps the machinery inside the vehicle cooler and heat resistant. Plus, because the motor is brushless, there are no dangerous brush sparks.